Technologies Developed
 

1.     Intercrop autumn sugarcane for more profit

Sugarcane an important agro-industrial crop in India plays a pivotal role in national economy by contributing 1.9 per cent to GDP. The crop is cultivated in 4.22 m ha producing 300 mt with a productivity of 70 t/ha. However, there have been fluctuations in area as well as productivity over the years on account of several factors. Plateauing yield level, declining factor productivity and increasing production cost in recent years posed serious concerns before cane growers and mill owners. In view of changing market scenario, consumers’ preferences and global competitions, new income generating opportunities need to be created through crop diversification sugarcane in ‘Produce to Product Chain’. This would help in increasing the land utilization efficiency, reducing the production cost, economizing the use of market purchased costly inputs and making plant-ratoon system sustainable.  This inturn raises the socio-economic status of small and marginal resource constrained farmers and generates employment especially for   rural women and youths.

Sugarcane characteristically widely spaced, initially slow growing, long duration and one time income generating crop, lends ample scope for intercropping with short duration, high value and mid-season income generating crops for nutrition and economic security especially of small and marginal cane growers. Moreover, intercropping is a tool to promote autumn planting giving 15-20 per cent higher cane yield and 0.5 unit more sugar recovery than spring planted cane. The autumn sugarcane based intercropping systems involving pulses, oilseeds, cereals and vegetables with their productivity levels have been identified.

As such autumn sugarcane + winter maize (cobs) proved more profitable and remunerative intercropping system. However, autumn sugarcane + rajmash has also been reckoned profitable as well as sustainable one due to additive nutrient synergies in the system and positive associative effects of rajmash on sugarcane yield attributes and yield. Moreover, intercropped rajmash in autumn sugarcane improved soil fertility through entire leaf fall at pod maturity besides root mass addition. The favourable effect of intercropped potato in autumn sugarcane is on account of inter row tillage operation having favourable rhizospheric environment for cane. Further, these two intercrops (rajmash and potato), being of shorter duration and heavily manured leave sizeable amount of unutilized plant nutrients for sugarcane. All these exhibited positive associative effects on sugarcane through development of synchronized tillers, longer, thicker and heavier millable cane. The detail of the technologies are given as under:

(1)     Sugarcane + Rajmash (PDR 14)

a.

Planting period

Mid October

b.

Seed rate

:

 

Sugarcane- 60 q/ha

Rajmash- 80 kg/ha

c.

Crop geometry

:

1:2 row ratio, sugarcane planted at 90 cm and two rows of rajmash accommodated at 30 cm spacing

d.

System based nutrient management (NPK kg/ha)

:

Sugarcane-150:60:60

1/3 N and full P and K at planting and 1/3 N after harvest of intercrop and 1/3 N at late tillering stage (first week of June)

Rajmash – 100:60:40  

1/2 N and full P and K at sowing, rest amount of N after first irrigation.

e.

Irrigation schedule

:

Irrigation at 40, 70 & 100 DAS for the system

f.

Production/economic gain

:

1500 Kg rajmash grain /ha

g.

Area of adoption

:

Central U.P. & Uttranchal

i.

Profitability

:

74855 Rs./ha

j.

B:C ratio

:

2.1

Fig 1 : Sugarcane + Rajmash

(2)    Sugarcane +Maize (Azad Uttam)

 a.

  Planting period

 :

Mid October

 b.

  Seed rate

 :

Sugarcane- 60 q/ha

Maize-20 kg/ha

 c.

  Crop geometry

 :

1:1 row ratio, sugarcane planted at 90 cm and one row of maize accommodated in between two rows of sugarcane.

 d.

  System based nutrient management (NPK kg/ha)

 :

Sugarcane- 150:60:60

1/3 N and full P and K at planting and 1/3 N after harvest of maize and 1/3 N at late tillering stage (first week of June)

Maize – 120:60:40

1/3N + full P and K at sowing

1/3N at Knee high stage

1/3N at Tasselling stage

  e.

  Irrigation schedule

 :

3-4 irrigations at critical physiological stages of maize

  f.

  Production/economic gain

 :

50-60 thousand green cobs /ha

  g  

  Area of adoption

 :

Central and Tarai region of U.P., Uttranchal

  i.

  Profitability

 :

72320 Rs./ha

  j.

B:C ratio

 :

2.02

Fig 2 : Sugarcane + Maize

(3)     Sugarcane + Potato (Kufri Ashoka)

 a.

Planting period

:

 Mid October

 b.

Seed rate

:

 Sugarcane- 60 q/ha

 Potato-25 q/ha

 c.

Crop geometry

:

 1:2 row ratio, sugarcane planted at 90 cm and two rows of potato accommodated at 30 cm spacing

 d.

System based nutrient management (NPK kg/ha)

:

 Sugarcane- 150:60:60

 1/3 N and full P and K at planting and 1/3 N after digging of potato and 1/3 N at late tillering stage (first week of June)

 Potato – 120:80:80

 1/2 N + full P and K at planting and remaining 1/2 N in two equal doses as topdressing at 30 and 50 DAP

 e.

Irrigation schedule

:

 Four irrigations at critical growth stages of potato

 f.

Production/economic gain

:

 20000 Kg/ha

 g.   

Area of adoption

:    

Central U.P.

 i.

Profitability

:

94671 Rs./ha

 j.

B:C ratio

:

1.48

Fig 3 : Sugarcane + Potato

Rationale of sugarcane based crop diversifications

2.    Wheat + sugarcane: Enhancing system productivity through FIRB

It is estimated that 3.0 lakh hectares (14 %) of sugarcane area in the country is under Wheat - Sugarcane - Ratoon - Wheat system. The importance of the system lies in the fact that more than 2/3rd of the sugarcane area in western U.P. and 10-14 % in other sub-tropical states are covered by this system. A drastic reduction (30-50 %) in sugarcane yield is a common feature when sugarcane is planted late (summer) after the harvest of wheat crop. In order to improve sugarcane productivity in wheat - sugarcane sequential system, the overlapping cropping under Furrow Irrigated Raised Bed (FIRB) system with wheat sowing on raised beds and sugarcane planting in furrows has been developed at Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research, Lucknow.

About the technology:

In this system three rows of wheat are sown on each raised bed (48/50 cm top width) at optimum sowing time in November at 17 cm row spacing, keeping the seed rate of 75-80 Kg per hectare through a tractor drawn Raised Bed Maker-cum-Ferti. Seed Drill. Immediately after sowing of wheat, an irrigation to the height of 3/4th of the furrow is required for proper germination of wheat. Subsequent irrigations are applied in the furrows. Overall, six irrigations are required in wheat crop. Germination, tillering and growth of wheat is better due to better soil tilth on the raised beds.

Fig 4 : Sugarcane planting in furrows in standing wheat

Sugarcane is planted in furrows(32/30 cm top width and 22 cm depth) in the month of February (optimum time of sugarcane planting in sub - tropical India) in the standing wheat crop. In this system sugarcane planting is advanced to 50-60 days which otherwise is done in late April/May in wheat - sugarcane sequential system. Sugarcane planting coincides with irrigation at boot leaf stage in wheat. Irrigation is applied in furrows preferably in the evening and sugarcane setts are planted next day and pressed into the soil manually when the soil is in muddy condition (wet planting). The technology has been evaluated in sandy loam soil successfully. In order to chisel the furrow, a wheel hoe has also been designed to loosen the soil before irrigation for better placement of setts.

Fig 5 : Sugarcane stand after wheat harvest

After wheat harvest, the furrows are used for irrigating sugarcane till earthing up operation.

To make the technology operationally feasible and cost effective, the institute has developed a tractor drawn Raised Bed Maker-cum-Ferti. Seed Drill.  The equipment can be operated by any 35 HP tractor.  Three raised beds at a spacing of 80 cm are made in single pass and three rows of wheat seeds are drilled on each bed simultaneously.

Benefits of the technology

The first and foremost benefit of overlapping technology under FIRB is that sugarcane is planted at the optimum time i.e. in the month of February. Otherwise, which is delayed by nearly 2 months to April end/May in wheat - sugarcane sequential system and thus system produces 35 per cent higher cane yield without reduction in wheat yield.

The system increases water use efficiency by saving irrigation water as it is applied only in the furrows requiring less volume of water in wheat, which works out to be 20% water saving as compared to flat method. Moreover, no extra irrigation is needed for field preparation (palewa) for sugarcane planting. Further, irrigations serve the purpose of both the crops till the harvest of wheat.

The system serve as alternative weed management technology because minimal weed counts are observed on raised beds and weeds mostly colonize in furrows being moist which could be controlled easily by weeding or directed herbicidal spray.

The system holds promise to increase input use efficiency. In this system 75-80 Kg seeds of wheat is required instead of 100 kg in flat method. The requirement of other inputs like herbicide and insecticide/rodenticide is also minimal.

Thus the technology reduces production cost and increases margin of profit especially for small and marginal farmers with limited resources.
 

3.     Integrated weed management in sugarcane

(A) Plant cane :

(i) Weeds should be controlled during most critical period (planting-120 days) of crop growth.

(ii) Under manpower availability, three manual hoeings or inter cultural operations at 30, 60 and 90 days after planting should be done.

(iii) Under limitations of manpower availability, pre-emergence application of either atrazine (2.0 kg/ha) or metribuzin (1.0 kg/ha) in 800 litres water/ha followed by either post-emergence spray of (Na salt) 1.0 kg/ha (800 litres water/ha) or one manual hoeing at 60 days after planting can successfully be done.

(iv) Under heavy infestation of Cyperus rotundus, a blanket spray of glyphosate (1 kg/ha) in 625 litres water/ha after 15-20 days of cane planting (before emergence of cane) followed by one hoeing at 60 days of planting should be done.

(v) After 150 days earthing-up should be done to suppress the weeds.

(B) Ratoon cane :

(i) Weeds in ratoon crop should be controlled within 60 days of crop initiation.

(ii) With the availability of manpower, three hoeings at 1, 4 and 7 weeks after ratoon initiation should be adopted for effective control of weeds.

(iii)Under limitations of manpower availability, pre-emergence application of either atrazine (2.0 kg/ha) or metribuzine 1.0 kg/ha (800 litres water/ha) followed by either spray of 2, 4-D (Na salt) at 1.0 kg/ha (800 litres water/ha) or hoeing at 45 days after ratoon initiation should be practiced.

(iv)Trash mulching in alternate rows and hoeing in unmulched rows at 1 & 6 weeks after ratoon initiation is also a good option.

(v) In the standing crop, during or after monsoon, weeds should be removed manually.

(vi) Crop should be given earthing-up at 120 days to suppress the weeds.
 

4.    Organic nutrition modules for sugarcane cultivation

1.   Apply composted SPM 10 t/ha + FYM 10 t/ha or composted SPM 10 t/ha + Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus to sugarcane in furrows at planting followed by planking the field.

2.   Irrigate the field 12-15 days after planting in spring and 18-20 days in autumn.

3.   Do blind hoeing at optimum field moisture to ensure adequate germination.

4.   The irrigation and hoeing operations may be repeated at 15-20 days interval.

5.   Do earthing-up by mid of July for autumn and by mid of August in spring planted crop.

6.   There after fixing and propping may be done to avoid lodging.

7.   Autumn planted crop is harvested in February and spring planting in March.

8.   Trash is aligned in the wind rows to facilitated operation for ratoon initiation.

9.   Field is irrigated and inter-culture operation done at optimum field moisture.

10. Bio-manures viz., well composted SPM 10 t/ha + FYM 10 t/ha or SPM 10 t/ha + Gluconacetobacter is applied along the stubble rows incorporating in the soil.

11. Thereafter the crop management operations are repeated as for plant crop.

12. Thus, organic nutrition module comprising SPM 10 t/ha + FYM 10 t/ha or SPM 10 t/ha + Gluconacetobater proves ideal organic farming module for enriching rhizospheric microbial pool, maintaining soil health, enhancing cane productivity and making plant-ratoon system economically viable.

 

5.     Agro-techniques for multi- ratooning in sugarcane

In order to sustain ratoon cane yield under multi-ratooning system, combination of various agro-techniques viz; trash mulching, gap filling, phorate application (15 kg/ha), stubble shaving and 20% extra seed to plant crop enhanced ratoon yield to the tune of 34,38,43, and 77% over control in Ist, IInd , IIIrd and IV ratoons, respectively. As an individual component technology, trash mulching and gap filling contributed 21-28 and 10-29% increase in yield, respectively indicating that these are the key management issues for multi-ratooning in sugarcane.
 

6.    Innovative wheat + sugarcane overlapping cropping system

In order to enhance the productivity of sugarcane in wheat-sugarcane sequential system an innovative overlapping cropping system has been designed at this Institute accommodating 3 rows of wheat in November on raised beds and sugarcane in 80 cm apart ditches in February (optimum time of sugarcane planting in sub - tropical India) under Furrow Irrigated Raised Beds (FIRB) system. Ridge maker cum seeder has also been designed and tested. The system registered 30% higher cane yield as compared to wheat - sugarcane sequential system without reduction in wheat yield. Further, in this system irrigation is applied only in furrows requiring less volume of water, which works out to be 20% water saving as compared to flat method. Thus the technology enhances input use efficiency, reduces production cost and increases margin of profit especially for small and marginal farmers with limited resources.
 

7.    Diversification of sugarcane based production system: Profitable avenues

Sugarcane being a long duration, widely spaced and one time income generating crop lends ample scope for crop diversification through inclusion of short duration high value intercrops. Intercropping of two rows of maize or rajmash in autumn planted sugarcane planted at 90 cm spacing increases system productivity (cane equivalent yield 137.3 and 121.3 t./ha respectively). Sugarcane + maize intercropping system may fetch a profit of Rs 93,457/ha with B:C ratio 2.37. Sugarcane + rajmash and sugarcane + potato system are equally profitable. Sugarcane + potato system receiving 75% NPK produces cane yield similar to sugarcane + rajmash with 100% NPK. Thus these intercropping systems hold great promise in increasing the land utilization efficiency, reducing the production cost, economizing the use of market purchased costly inputs and making plant-ratoon system sustainable. This in turn ensures household economic and nutritional security.       
 

8.     Non-conventional Method to Improve Sucrose content in Sugarcane

Ripening technology using foliar application of ripeners such as  Polaris, Glyphosate, Fusilade Super, Ethephon, Mefluidide etc., is not successful in commercial  sugarcane plantation due to small land holdings, inter crops and  difficulties in application. A  method has been developed to augment sucrose content in cane plant by applying  new generation  sucrose enhancing chemicals through liquid line (irrigation water) or in granular formulations.

 Application of  sucrose enhancing chemical .(DNC liquid @ 8-10 kg/ha in irrigation water; DNC-granule@ 15 kg/ha).  after cessation of grand growth period enhances  sucrose content in a few sugarcane varieties.

 Table :Effect of  Dinitrosocifrol (DNC) application on juice quality of four sugarcane genotypes during incline phase

Variety

Treatment

Brix

Pol% Juice

Purity

Brix

Pol% Juice

Purity

95 days after treatment

135 days after treatment

CoS 8436

DNC

19.38

16.64

85.89

20.77

18.04

86.86

Control

18.81

15.94

84.72

19.52

16.38

83.93

CoJ 64

DNC

19.72

17.01

86.24

20.16

17.55

87.02

Control

18.69

15.86

84.83

18.86

16.14

85.53

CoS 767

DNC

18.78

15.87/I

84.47

19.65

16.80

85.51

Control

18.73

15.81

84.40

18.88

15.99

84.70

CoS 95222

DNC

15.32

11.68

76.16

18.32

15.38

83.95

Control

12.36

8.04

64.98

15.42

12.11

78.54


 

9.    Bio-control Technology in Sugarcane

(a)    Release of Trichogramma chilonis for controlling root and shoot borers of Sugarcane

This native egg parasitoid is effective in controlling root borer (Emmalocera depressla Swinhoe) and internode borer (Chilo sacchariphagus indicus Kapur). For this purpose, its adults are required to be released @ 50,000/ha  at 10 days intervals from July to October. These parasitoids are available in the form of post card sized egg cards (Tircho-cards) bearing around 20,000 parasitised eggs. These cards should be cut into small pieces of convenient size and placed on the plant, stapled to the underside of leaves or tied at a number of places in the field for good distribution on the day of emergence. The release should be avoided during rainy period. The culture of this potential bioagent is being maintained at IISR, Lucknow and the Tricho-cards are available.

(b)     Release of Epiricania melanoleuca for control of Pyrilla

This indigenous parasitoid is very effective in controlling heavy pyrilla infestation by redistributing from the locations where it is abundantly available to the places where it is not available. For this purpose, its unemerged cocoons are required to be collected and stapled to the underside of leaves @ 1000 cocoons/ha. Twenty five cocoons are stapled at each spot. This is effective in controlling the pest within three weeks and establishing the parasite in endemic pockets.
 

10.     Three-Tier Seed Programme

Three-tier seed programme has been developed for the production of healthy seed cane and its regular supply to the farmers for commercial cultivation. This programme is mainly based on heat therapy because of its effectiveness in controlling seed-borne infections. It also encompasses various prophylactic measures to control insect pests and techniques for the production of healthy seed cane. Each tier of the programme is completed in one year and after third year the certified seed cane in made available to the farmers. The details of the programmes are as under :

i)       Breeder Seed Cane

Genetically pure apparently healthy seed cane is taken from a plant crop unaffected with water logging, drought and insect pests. This seed cane is subjected to moist hot air treatment at 54oC and 95% RH for 2.5 hours. The setts are treated with recommended fungicide before planting. The setts are also examined to remove infected ones or with damaged buds. Planting of this seed cane is done in such fields which are not prone to water logging and have assured irrigation supply. The plots which are situated on the vicinity of crop affected with disease or insect pests should be avoided for planting of seed cane. The crop is inspected at monthly intervals from the germination stage till harvest. If any diseased plant is observed, it is immediately rogued out. The pesticides should be used according to the need at different stages of crop growth. The seed cane so obtained is called Breeder Seed.

ii)     Foundation Seed Cane

In the second year, Breeder seed cane is multiplied and the progeny thus obtained is called Foundation Seed. All the operations, except heat therapy, applied for raising breeder seed cane, are also applied for raising foundation seed. The crop is inspected three times, first after 45-60 days of planting, second after 120-130 days and third 15 days before harvest.

iii)     Certified Seed Cane

In the third year, foundation seed cane is multiplied and the progeny is called as Certified Seed which is distributed to farmers for commercial cultivation. Like foundation seed cane, certified seed cane is also raised and no heat treatment is given to the seed obtained from foundation seed crop. The crop is inspected thrice as in case of foundation seed crop, but in this case only 25% of crop is inspected during first inspection and only 10% crop during the course of second and third inspections.

According to this seed programme, if starting is made with 1 hectare of Breeder seed cane, the certified seed cane produced at the end of multiplication stage (third year) would be sufficient to plant 1000 hectares by conventional method. Three-tier seed programme is being carried out at several sugar factories and research stations. During last two decades, a large number of workers have been trained for the purpose at various research stations and training centers.
 

11.    Tractor Operated Multipurpose Equipment

 

  

Fig 6 : Three row multipurpose equipment in various modes of operation

Description

This is a tractor-mounted equipment, which is mounted with three point linkage system.  This can be lifted or lowered by the hydraulic system of the tractor.  This equipment can perform following operations.

Land Preparation

 The equipment can be used as tractor operated nine tine cultivator.

Cane Planting

The equipment can be used as whole cane cutter planter for planting of sugarcane in three row simultaneously. Planting includes opening of furrows, cutting cane setts and placing of setts in furrow, placement of fertilizer and chemicals, covering the setts with soil and providing light compaction.

Interculture

The equipment can be used for intercultural operation in sugarcane field.  Three inter row spaces are intercultured in single pass. There will be 2-3 tines in each inter row, as per requirement.

Earthing-up

Earthing-up operation in three row of cane can be performed by this equipment.

All above operations required for sugarcane culture may be performed by IISR Tractor Drawn Multipurpose Equipment with minor changes/adjustment.  The same can be carried out at farm with the help of simple tools.

Puddling

A rotary beater type sub-unit may be mounted with the main frame of the equipment for puddling of field for paddy transplanting.

 Drilling of Seeds

The fertilizer box may be used as seed box.  Main frame, power transmission system and ground wheels of the equipment remains as such.  Only a sub-unit for opening the rows is to be mounted.  This can meter (through flutted rollers) and drill seeds in 10 rows having spacing of 22 cm.  Row spacing may be varied also.

General Specifications

                                                Length, cm                                220

                                                Width, cm                                 146

                                                Height, cm                                205

                                                Weight, kg.                               347

Technical Specifications

                                                Power requirement                        5 hp and above

                                                No. of row opener                        3

                                                Row to row distance (cm)           75

                                                Field capacity (ha/h)                  

                                                I.          Planting                        0.30

                                                II.         Interculture                  0.65

                                                III.        Earthing-up                 0.40

                                                IV         Puddling                    0.35

 

12.      IISR Tractor operated improved two row sugarcane cutter planter

Description

The planter can be operated by any tractor of 25 hp or above. It is a mounted type. It can plant sugarcane in two rows   simultaneously.  Brief description is as below :

 Furrow opening       

 Two way mould board shaped furrow have been used to open furrows. Arrangement  has been made to vary the depth of furrows.

 Sett cutting      

 The cutting unit takes full cane of any shape and size. It cuts setts of 37cm long. Length of setts remain same up to tractor speed of 3 km/hr. The operator has to lift the cane from seed tray and place it in the slanting chute (55° w.r.t. horizontal plane). Cane slides down to cutting unit(s) through gravitational force. Hence operator finds enough time for setts cane feeding. This minimises gaps in setts placement in furrows. The cane are cut at an angle of 65°  by curved rotating blades. Thus cutting becomes very smooth and clean.

Fertilizer Application

 Fertilizer is metered through fluted rollers and placed near the setts in the furrows.

Liquid chemical Dispensing

As per requirement, liquid chemicals can be dispensed over the setts in the furrows. A PVC pipe of 15 cm diameter has been provided to store the chemical. Its capacity is 25 lit. Two brass nozzles with stop cocks are fitted in this pipe to dispense chemicals on setts in both the furrows. Instead of tanks/ containers, PVC pipe has been used to avoid rusting and minimize variation in chemical application rate.

Soil covering

Setts in furrows are covered with loose soil. A tamping roller presses the furrow soil lightly to conserve soil moisture.

Miscellaneous

It is the lightest and most compact planter available in the country, probably in the world. Its power transmission system is very simple. Hence chances of break downs are minimum. Ground wheels are such designed and placed that clodding and slippage will be minimum. Best efforts have been made to shift the weight of the machine nearest to tractor so that any tractor of 25 hp would be able to pull/ lift it.

 Technical Data          

                                                (i)    Labour Requirement                    4

                                                (ii)    Row to row spacing ,cm            75

                                                (iii)    Field capacity, ha/hr                0.27

Specifications           

                                                (i) Length, cm                                 165

                                                (ii) Width, cm                                 146

                                                (iii) Height, cm                                205

                                                (iv) Weight, kg                                248

 

13.    IISR Tractor drawn Cutter Planter cum Seeder

The technology is recommended for wheat-based sugarcane farming system. The equipment is basically a sugarcane cutter planter with attachment for sowing wheat. It has been provided with special devices for planting sugarcane and sowing wheat in a single pass of the tractor. Sugarcane is grown along with wheat with no extra energy and crop-inputs while  yield of both crops are at par with the normal solo crops. Sugarcane requires crop-inputs only after harvesting wheat crop. It does not suffer with problems associated with planting sugarcane in succession after harvesting wheat crop. The seeder- cutter/planter is equipped with following units:

Tine type furrow opening

 Tines are used to tear open a slit. Furrow widener and guider help placing cane- setts in slit in an orderly manner at proper depth. Shoe type openers are used to sow wheat.

 

 Sett cutting

The cutting unit takes full cane of any shape and size. It cuts setts of 35-37 cm long and guides about 31 setts to each 10 m length of furrow. Sett cutting unit is driven through a ground wheel.

 

 Seed metering

It is equipped with fluted feed type seed metering mechanism. The metering shaft is powered through the ground wheel of the cutter planter.

 

 Dispensing

Fertilizer is dispensed through a metering unit. Liquid chemical is applied through gravity in furrows.

 

 Soil covering

Setts and wheat seed are covered with loose soil with the help of two 93.0 cm long and 10.0 cm diameter rollers. These rollers are filled with sand to provide light compaction to the furrow soil.

 

Miscellaneous

It is equipped with cane seed, fertilizer box, liquid chemical box and comfortable seats.

Technical Data: (Sugarcane / Wheat)

Type of furrow opener

Tine / Shoe type

 

No. of furrow openers

2 / 10

Width of the furrow, cm

10 / 5

Row to row distance, cm

75 / 22

Equipment derives power  through

Ground wheel

Field capacity, ha/h

0.25

Field efficiency,   %

65 – 70

Saving over conventional    planting, %>

40

Specifications

Length, cm

168

Width, cm

187

Height, cm

80

Weight, kg, approx

250 

Fig 7 : IISR Sugarcane Cutter Planter cum Wheat Seeder
 

14.   IISR Tractor drawn Sugarcane Cutter Planters

                                                                                  

&

Fig 8a : IISR Disc Type Cutter Planter

Fig 8b : IISR Ridger Type Cutter Planter

Fig 8c : IISR Slit Type Cutter Planter

Description

Furrow Opening

 Two discs (one for each furrow) are arranged to open furrows in almost all types and conditions of soil. Furrow guiders assist in proper placement of cane setts in the furrow.

Ridger type: Ridgers are used for opening furrows in well-tilled soil.

Slit type: Tines are used to tear open a slit. Furrow widener and guider help placing cane- setts in slit in an orderly manner at proper depth.

Sett cutting

The cutting unit takes full cane of any shape and size. It cuts setts of 35-37 cm long and guides about 31 setts to each 10 m length of furrow. It is driven through tractor PTO in the ridger type, through one ground wheel in the disc/slit type cutter planter.

 Dispensing

 Fertilizer is dispensed through a metering unit. Liquid chemical is applied through gravity in furrows. 

 Soil covering

 Setts in furrows are covered with loose soil. Tamping roller presses the furrow soil lightly to conserve soil moisture.

 Miscellaneous

 It is equipped with comfortable seats and appropriate boxes for storing sugarcane, fertilizer, and liquid chemical.

 Technical Data

Particular

Slit type with ground wheel

Disc type* with ground wheels

Ridger type

Power Requirement Tractor,  hp

25/35

25/35

35

Labour 4 4 4

Type of furrow opener

Tines with furrow guider

Disc with furrow guider

Ridger

No. of furrow openers

2

2

2<

Width of the furrow, cm

7-10

40-45

40-45

Row to row distance, cm

60-90

75 or 90

75 or 90

Source of power to drive sub units

Ground wheel

Ground wheel

Tractor pto

Field capacity, ha/h

0.25

0.25

0.25

Field efficiency %

65

65

65

Saving over conventional planting %

40

40

40


Specifications

Length, cm

175

185

204

Width, cm

150

150

162

Height, cm

220

220

211

Weight, kg

302

342

345

*   It can also be used as Zero-till Sugarcane cutter planter     
 

15.     IISR Moist hot air seed cane treatment unit

The MHAT unit has been designed to control seed piece transmissible diseases like grassy shoot, ratoon shunting and primary infection of red rot of sugarcane, which otherwise pass from one generation to another. It also helps controlling the insect, pests like scale, mealy bugs etc.

Working details

Seed cane is treated above 95% humidity at 54±1/2º C for a total duration of 4 hours including initial period of heating

The unit consists of

Fig 9 : Inside View of MHAT Unit

Sugarcane is loaded in the trays, which are kept inside the drum. Doors are closed for a set duration of time.  Steam is generated out side the rear panel and is injected inside the chamber. It gradually gets mixed with hot air. Most hot air circulates inside the drum to treat seed cane.

 The heat treatment has become a major component of seed programme in India and abroad. The unit has been released for commercial production.

 Specifications

i)  Dimensions Length 3200 mm
  Width 1900 mm
  Height 1980 mm
  Weight 800 kg.
ii) Test Results  Power Requirement 15 Kw with 440 volts 
  No. of persons required 3
  Duration of treatment 4th
  Treatment temperature and humidity 54oC, 95-98% RH
  Germination (%) of treated cane At par with normal  untreated cane
  Out put 600 kg Cane/treatment

Sugarcane juice concentrate is an intermediate product obtained while concentration of the sugarcane juice after purification for jaggery making.  This product is collected in semi-liquid form from the boiling pan and packed in suitable containers for marketing.  The quality  of the concentrate depends on cane variety and the composition of the juice, type of the clarificant used and the striking temperature at which the liquid jaggery is collected. The product is utilized as a sweetening agent in foods and drinks in many parts of the country, viz., Maharashtra, Gujarat, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, etc.
 

16.   Bottled Sugarcane Juice Concentrate

Protocol for preparation of the cane juice concentrate

The step involved in preparation of the cane juice concentrate begins from the harvesting of cane.  The cane should be crushed within 24 hrs after harvesting to avoid deterioration due to inversion. The cane juice after extraction is filtered through a muslin cloth and collected in an storage tank.  The juice is poured in an open pan and is heated to facilitate the coagulation of the suspended particles into gummy colloidal substance.  When the temperature reaches 85oC, which takes around 115-120 minutes, the nitrogenous impurities present in the juice start coagulating and floating on the surface, which are removed using the hand laddle.

At this stage, the clarificant (preferably vegetative) is added.  After addition of the clarificant, a golden coloured substance called scum appears on the surface, which once again was removed.  After complete clarification, the boiled juice becomes clear, transparent and light brownish yellow in colour.   Later on, the juice is concentrated.  At 99-100oC, the juice begins to froth.

In order to avoid this frothing and charring continuous stirring is done and at the striking temperature of 108oC the juice becomes viscous and is removed from the heating source.  The concentrate is cooled and citric acid + benzoic acid (0.05% + 0.5%) are added as preservatives. The product can be flavoured using the essence of orange, rose, etc. to give it a distinct flavour This concentrate is cooled in large settling tanks and is packed and sterilized.. The product finally resembles honey in appearance.  The concentrate can be stored for a year without any deterioration in its quality.
 

17.     Ready-to-use Juice Clarificant Powder prepared from Deola (Hibiscus ficulneus) Stem for Making Jaggery (Gur)

In Jaggery manufacturing sodium hydrosulphite (hydros) is indiscriminately used for juice clarification beyond recommended limits (35 g hydros/1000 l Juice) for clarification of cane juice to impart light golden yellow colour to jaggery.  Often level of SO2 in jaggery exceeds beyond 50 ppm which is not suitable for human consumption (Bureau of Indian Standard I.S.12923, 1990).  Many phyto-clarificants have been reported during the last 60 years.  Amongst the phyto-clarificants fresh deola stem was found to be quite effective juice clarificant for jaggery making.  Since deola plant is not available during peak period of jaggery manufacturing, there is a need to develop some phyto-clarificants as ready to use form for supply during the period of jaggery manufacturing. Keeping this in view, a  ready-to-use clarificant powder has been prepared from deola stem.

Preparation of ready to use vegetative clarificant powder

The clarificant powder is prepared from the shade dried deola stems collected at seed formation and maturity stages of growth of the plant.   Deola stem is thoroughly washed with tap water.  After drying stem and branches are separated out and then scrapped by using motorized cane preparator.    The scrapped sample material is kept for drying under shade. The dried stem is subjected to grinding for preparation of powder.  After grinding, powder (< 1 mm light yellowish and greenish brown coloured particles) is sieved out from fibrous stem material.  Powder thus obtained is kept in bottle/packed in polyethylene.

Method of Use

25 g Deola stem powder is suspended in 2 liter water and mixed thoroughly.  After 1 hour mucilaginous extract is filtered. Mucilaginous filtrate is used for clarification of 100 liter of cane juice. 

The quality of jaggery prepared from cane juice using ready to use deola stem powder (25 g/100 l juice) is similar to the jaggery prepared using fresh deola stem (aqueous extract of 40 g stem/100 litre juice). 

Clarificant powder prepared from shade dried stem of deola plant harvested at seed formation and maturity stages can be used in place of the most commonly used hazardous chemical clarificant such as sodium hydrosulphite.
 

18.    Solid Jaggery in uniform shape and size

 

Fig 10 : Brick shaped Jaggery and Jaggery Cubes

 The diversity in shape of single commodity does not attract any one for the development of equipment/gadgets for the product handling. therefore, for uniformity of shape and size jaggery molding frames were developed at IISR, Lucknow to manufacture brick shaped jaggery weighing 125, 250 and 500 g and 2.5 cm cube weighing about 20 g. The juice extracted through mechanical crushers is boiled, clarified and concentrated.  Concentrated semi-solid mass after puddling in cooling pan, is poured into these frames and leveled up with laddle.  After about 40-45 minutes when the jaggery is set, brick and cubes are removed by dismantling the frame.  The frames are reused after assembling.

           

Fig 11 : Gur Molding Frame

 The specifications of the moulding frames are as given below :

Name of the Equipment

JAGGERY MOULDING FRAME

Suitable for

Moulding the jaggery

Type

Batch type


Specifications

Length (mm)

620

860

Width (mm)

590

720

Height (mm)

25

25

Cube size (mm)                  

25x25x25

-

Brick size (mm)

-

75x52x25

Jaggery Cube (g)

20

-

Jaggery brick (g)

-

125

Capacity (kg/h) 

9.33

20

(kg/batch)

7

15

Power source

Manual

Labour requirement (m-h/batch

2.0

Capacity 7 kg/batch

4000

Capacity 15 kg/batch

6000


 

 19. Manufacturing of Granular Jaggery

Fig 12 : Granular Jaggery

The fresh juice with raised pH of 6 to 6.2 by adding lime as clarificant is heated in the open pan.  After attaining the striking point temperature of 120-122o C the hot mass in the pan is removed from furnace and allowed to cool with thorough mixing for few minutes. The thickened mass is transferred from pan to the alluminium trays or on cement platform and allowed for cooling for few minutes without stirring for good crystal formation.  The process flow chart is shown in Fig. 4  At the time of solidification the mass is made into powder manually using wooden scrapers without any lapse of time.  Prepared powder is then sun dried from about 11.50% to 1.5% moisture content, sieved through 1-3 mm sieves and packed in 400 gauge polyethelene sachets or PET Bottles. The granular jaggery (Fig. 5) weighing 100 g contains 80-90 g sucrose, 5-6 g reducing sugar, 0.4 g protein, 0.1 g fat, 9 mg calcium, 4 mg phosphorus, 12 mg iron, 0.6-1.0 g total minerals and 385 kcal energy.  It is convenient for handling, drying, packaging, storage, transport and distribution.  It has about 2 years safe storage like.

 

20.   Improved IISR Furnace

Fig 13 : Double pan IISR Furnace

Double pan IISR Furnace was improved by providing special features viz. step grate for consumption of fuel, gutter pan for preheating of juice for next charge, chimney for sufficient draft and provisions for preheating of air.  Striking temperature is achieved after about 2.75 hours of operation in first lot whereas second lot reaches striking point after two hours.  Major saving is due to preheated gutter pan juice.   Also the introduction of forced draft system saved 9% bagasse consumption as compared to the natural draft.